1561 - 1629
||Sandys, Edwin |
- Edwin Sandys was born at Hartlebury Castle on the 9th of December 1561, the family bible records the time as 'six of the clock in the morning'. The second son of Bishop Edwin Sandys (1516?-1588) and his second wife Cecily. At the time of his birth his father was bishop of Worcester, and Hartlebury Castle, four miles south of Kidderminster, was his official residence. His father later became bishop of London and then Archbishop of York.
In 1570 his father became bishop of London and Edwin entered Merchant Taylors' School, London, in 1571, considered second only to St. Paul's school. He became a scholar (fully matriculated undergraduate) at Corpus Christi College, Oxford in September 1577 together with his brother Samuel and his friend George Cranmer. Education at this time was expanding and the young Sandys took full advantage of his privileged position in society. George Cranmer was the grand-nephew of Archbishop Cranmer, author and compiler of the Book of Common Prayer, who had been martyred when he was burnt at the stake outside Balliol College, Oxford in 1556. There was no minimum age for admission of students but a maximum age of nineteen; when Edwin matriculated he was still fifteen. Oxford had been ravaged intermittently by plague for the last six years, between 1571 and 1577. It reached its peak in the year Edwin arrived, when on one night alone the pestilence infected over 600 people.His tutor was the theologian Richard Hooker, and both Sandys and Cranmer formed a friendship with Hooker that was to last more than two decades. The tutor system was a radical innovation introduced during this period. Edwin's father (then the bishop of London) selected Richard Hooker to be the young Edwin's tutor at Oxford. The powerful Elizabethan cleric and his son were to have a defining impact on Richard Hooker's life and career. The tutor was in loco parentis, so took charge of all aspects of their student's well being, including their allowances.
Corpus Christi had about 25 scholars, around 20 rich commoners and as many as ten younger clerks and choristers. The commoners tended to flout the college rules with impunity because their parents provided a welcome new source of income and future endowments. So the commoners finery, which was contary to college regulations, contrasted with the plain prescribed monastic garb of the scholars. It was also a time of social change and the focus was shifting away from educating ministers for the Church and was moving towards preparing the sons of wealthy families for careers in government, medicine, law, business and science.
Corpus Christi was stricter than other colleges; Matins in the chapel at 5 a.m. every morning and logic classes started at 6 a.m. Although the days had passed when missing a lecture meant a loss of meals and a public whipping. It was a place where education and moral discipline were serious matters. Compared with some of the richer colleges food was fairly plain. Only Greek and Latin would be spoken during the meal, when one of the fellows would read from the Bible.
Edwin and George Cranmer later took an active role in the preparation of Hooker's masterpiece The Laws of the Ecclesiastical Polity, which Hooker started writing around 1589. Hooker's friends often found it necessary to correct his composition and spelling. The eight-volume work set the tone and direction of Anglican theology. Edwin remained at Oxford on and off for nearly thirteen years, taking his B.A. in 1579 at the age of seventeen, and gaining election as a fellow of Corpus that same year. He studied law at Oxford but didn't complete his studies, although he did spend five years at an Inn of Court in London. He never practiced the profession, but used his legal training to good effect during his parliamentary career.
Edwin Sandys married four times:
1st Wife - Margaret Eveleigh - Daughter of John Eveleigh from Devon, Edwin married sometime in the mid-1580s. They had one child - Elizabeth, born about 1585, she later married her own second cousin, Sir Thomas Wilford of Kent, who was executed as a royalist in 1648. Edwin's first wife, died in childbirth in July 1588; Edwin's father died the same month. Margaret's brother, Nicholas Eveleigh, who had been at Corpus Christi College with Richard Hooker and Edwin, became one of Sir Edwin's stewards.
2nd Wife - Anne Southcote - Daughter of Thomas Southcote/Southcott of Devon, a cousin of his first wife, he married sometime during the early 1590s and she died in 1593.
3rd Wife - Elizabeth Nevinson - Daughter of Thomas and Ann Nevinson, a well-established family from Eastry (near to Northbourne) - he married Elizabeth about 1601. The Nevinson family held the Canterbury Chapter manorial estate at Eastry from about 1550 to 1630. There are a number of Nevinson memorials in Eastry Church, including a large brass of Elizabeth's father, Thomas 'Nevynson' who died in July 1590. It seems they were only married for a few years before Elizabeth died. Hasted records they had a daughter - Anne - who married Thomas Engeham from the nearby parish of Goodnestone.
4th Wife - Katherine Bulkeley - born 1583, daughter of Sir Richard and Mary Bulkeley of Anglesey. She married Edwin in 1605 when he was approaching his mid forties she was about 22; in the next two decades they had twelve children. Their youngest son, Francis was born when Edwin was well into his fifties and a miscarriage occurred in 1620 when Edwin was 58. Although there is an effigy of Lady Sandys in Northbourne church, the later plaque makes no mention of her; she outlived her husband by a number of years and died in 1640.
Sir Edwin's and Lady Katherine Sandys Children:
(NB. The children below may not be in the correct order.)
1 - Henry (Eldest son b. 1605 - d. 1640) married Margaret daughter of Sir William Hammond of St. Albans, at nearby Nonington. The Northbourne parish register records: 'Captain Henry Sandys Esq. died at London', buried 7th August 1640. An earlier entry records: 'Edwin the son of Captain Edwin Sandys, died in London', buried 19th June 1633.
2 - Edwin - 2nd son, Wadham College Oxford 1621. He married Catherine, daughter of Richard Champneys of Hall Place, Bexley, Kent. The Champneys were an ancient Norman family, Catherine's great grandfather - Sir John Champneys - was lord mayor of London in 1534 and began building Hall Place around 1537. Her grandfather - Justinian Champneys - was sheriff of Kent in 1582. Her father sold Hall Place and moved to Woolwich. Edwin was a Colonel in the Parliamentary army and wounded at the first significant engagement of the Civil War - the Battle of Powick Bridge, Worcester on 23rd September 1642, but died later in October and is buried at Worcester Cathedral. He was grandfather of Sir Richard Sandys, who was created a baronet in 1684, but died without issue in 1726.
3 - Mary - (b. 12 Sep 1607 - d. 26 Oct 1675). Married 1. William Reade - married 2. Richard Spencer, second son of Robert, first baron of Wormleighton.
4 - Richard - of Downe Hall (3rd son b. 1608 - d. 1669) (married Hester Aucher) A colonel in the Parliamentary army. In 1647 he was governor of the Bermuda Company. Subsequently he purchased Down Hall, Kent.
5 - Catherine (married Gerard Scrimshire of Aquelate)
6 - Robert - 4th son, lost an arm fighting as a Royalist, fighting both Scots and Irish, he claims to have been in Charles's Privy Chamber. Charles II paid him £1,000 for his services, and eventually Robert settled in County Roscommon, on an estate named Sandifled, as the respectable son-in-law of an Irish Viscount.
7 - William - The Northbourne parish register records: 'William, son of Edwin Sandys Knight', buried July 21 1628.
8 - Elizabeth
9 - Thomas (d. after 1629)
10 - Penelope
11 - Francis - buried at Northbourne, 5th July 1620.
12 - Frances - youngest born between 1614 and 1619. The Northbourne parish register records: 'Frances the daughter of Sir Edwin Sandys, Knight,' buried 11th January 1630.
13 - Boy - stillborn on 10th September 1620.
||25 Feb 2007 |
|| Bulkeley, Katherine, b. 1583, d. 1640 |
|1. Sandys, Henry, b. 1605, d. 1640|
|+||2. Sandys, Colonel Edwin, d. 1642|
|3. Sandys, Mary 2x , b. 1607, d. 1675|
|+||4. Sandys, Richard, b. 1608, d. 1669|
|5. Sandys, Catherine|
|6. Sandys, Robert|
| ||7. Sandys, William, d. 1628|
|8. Sandys, Elizabeth|
| ||9. Sandys, Thomas|
|10. Sandys, Penelope|
| ||11. Sandys, Francis, d. 1620|
| ||12. Sandys, Frances, d. 1630|